Typhoid Fever

Typhoid Fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi Bacteria

Mode of Transmission

  • Ingestion of food and water contaminated with human waste

Signs and Symptoms

  • Sustained high fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise (weakness)
  • Anorexia (loss of appetite)
  • Diarrhea or constipation and abdominal discomfort

Prevention and Control

  • Boil water for drinking. (Upon reaching boiling point, extend boiling for two or more minutes) or
  • Do water chlorination
  • Cook food well and always use food cover to prevent flies and other insects from contaminating them.
  • Wash thoroughly all vegetables and fruits especially those that are eaten raw.
  • Avoid eating street vended foods.
  • Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating.
  • Keep surrounding cleam to prevent breeding of flies.

Source: Department of Health

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Influenza is caused by Influenza virus (A, B or C)

Incubation Period

  • 1-3 days

Mode of Transmission

Entry of the virus into the respiratory tract:

  • via droplets from an infected person through coughing, talking and sneezing.
  • through contact with the surfaces, material and clothing contaminated with discharges of an infected person.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Fever of at least 38 C
  • Headache
  • Runny nose, sore throat, cough or other respiratory manifestations
  • May or may not have muscle or joint pains


  • Use of antiviral agents within the first two days may halt the course of influenza illness.  Consult your physician regarding antiviral agents.
  • Paracetamol for fever.  Aspirin should not be given to children.
  • Antibiotics to be given only to complications of influenza such as pneumonia or otitis media.
  • Adequate rest.
  • Increase intake of oral fluids and eat nutritious foods.


  • Influenza vaccination preferably to be given anytime from February to June.
  • Provide separate room to a person sick with influenza.
  • Cover mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing to prevent spread of the virus.
  • Avoid crowded places. Distance yourself from at least  meter from people who are coughing or are sick with influenza.
  • Wash hands frequently with soap and water.

Source: Department of Health

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Leptospira bacteria causes Leptospirosis

Incubation Period:  7-10 days

Mode of Transmission:

  • Entry of the leptospira bacteria through wounds when in contact with flood waters, vegetation, moist soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals, especially rats.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Non-specific symptoms of muscle pain, headache
  • Calf-muscle pain and reddish eyes fro some cases
  • Severe cases result tot liver involvement, kidney failure or brain involvement.  Thus some cases may have yellowish body discoloration, dark-colored urine and light stools, low urine output, severe headache.


  • Antibiotics duly prescribed by a physician.
  • Early recognition and treatment within two days of illness to prevent complications of leptospirosis, so early consultation is advised.

Prevention and Control:

  • Avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water or flood water.
  • Use of proper protection like boots and gloves when work requires exposure to contaminated water.
  • Drain potentially contaminated water when possible.
  • Control rats in the household by using rat traps or rat poison, maintaining cleanliness in the house.


  • Iwasang lumangoy, lumusong at maglaro sa baha.
  • Gumamit ng bota kung kailangang lumusong sa baha.
  • Sumakay sa bangka or rubber boats kung aalis ng bahay.

Mga Palatandaan ng Leptospirosis:

  • Lagnat
  • Panginginig ng katawan o “Chills”
  • Pananakit ng ulo, binti, kalamnan at kasu-kasuan
  • Pamumula ng mga mata
  • Paninilaw ng balat
  • Nahihirapang umihi

Kung may lagnat ng 2 araw, agad na komunsulta sa doktor.

Buhay ay mahalaga, huwag lumusong sa baha!

Source: Department of Health

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV).

Mode of Transmission

  • Ingestion of food contaminated with human waste and urine of persons who are sick of Hepatitis A

Signs and Symptoms

  • fever
  • flu-like symptoms: weakness, muscle and joint aches, loss of appetite, dizziness with or without vomitting
  • abdominal discomfort
  • after few days, jaundice may follow

Immediate Treatment

  • No specific medicine to cure the patient or shorten the course of illness.
  • Sick persons shuld be isolated, advised to rest, take plenty of luids and avoid fatty foods.
  • Patient who fail to take fluids or are too weak to eat are sometimes brought for intravaneous administration of fluids and vitamins.

Prevention and Control

  • Wash hands after using the toilet, before preapring food and before eating
  • Dispose human waste properly.
  • Thoroughly cook oysters, clams, other shellfish for 4 minutes or steamed for 1 minute and 30 seconds.
  • Practice safe handling and storage of food and water.

The disease is self-limiting and may last for 1 to 2 weeks.  Patient often recovers even without treatment.

Source: Department of Health

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Vibrio cholerae bacteria causes Cholera

Mode of Transmission

Eating of food or drinking of water contaminated with human waste.

 Signs and Symptoms

  • Sudden onset of frequent painless watery stools
  • Vomitting
  • Rapid dehydration (e.g. sunken eyeballs, wrinkled and dry skin)


  • Replace lost body fluid by giving Oral Rehydration Solution (ORESOL) or a homemade solution composed of 1 teaspoon of salt, 4 teaspoons of sugar mix to 1liter of water. If diarrhea persists, consult your health workers or bring the patient to the nearest hospital.

 Prevention and Control

  • Drink only safe and clean water. If unsure, boil drinking water (Upon reaching boiling point, extend boiling for two or more minutes), or
  • Do water chlorination.
  • Keep food away from insects and rats by covering it.
  • Wash and cook food properly.
  • Sanitary disposal of human waste.
  • Use toilet properly and clean toilet everyday.
  • Wash hands with soap after using toilet and before eating.
  • Keep surroundings clean to prevent flies and other insects and rodents from breeding.

Source: Department of Health


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Colon Cancer

Incidence and mortality

Colon cancer ranks 6th overall, 5th among males and 7th among females. An estimated 2,963 new cases, 1,548 in males 1,415 in females, together with 1,567 deaths will be seen in 1998. Colon cancer increases markedly after age 50.

 Risk factors & prevention

Personal or family history of colon cancer; personal or family history polyps in the colon; inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence suggest that colon cancer may be linked to a diet high in fat and deficient in whole grains, fruit and vegetables.

Warning signals

A change in bowel habits such as recurrent diarrhea and constipation, particularly with the presence of abdominal discomfort, weight loss, unexplained anemia, and blood in the stool.

 Early detection

Unfortunately, early colon cancer is asymptomic, and there is still no efficient screening method for early detection. The aim should be earlier diagnosis of symptomatic patients who complain of changes in bowel habits, vague abdominal pains, and unexplained weight loss and anemia, particularly among patients 50 years old and above, by means of barium enema or colonoscopy.

The mistaken obsession of our physician with amoebiasis and other forms of inflammatory bowel disease had for decades been a major factor that had delayed diagnosis of colon cancer. The wider availability of antidiarrheals, antibiotics and amoebecides may have worsened the situation. Too many physicians still insist in giving vitamin preparations and hematinics for chronic unexplained weight loss and anemia without carefully looking for the cause.


Early colon cancer is curable, and surgery is the most effective method of treatment.

Source: Department of Health

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Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever is an acute infectious disease manifested initially with fever.


Aedes aegypti, the transmitter of the disease, is a day-biting mosquito, which lays eggs in clear and stagnant water found in flower vases, cans, rain barrels, old rubber tires, etc. The adult mosquitoes rest in dark places of the house.

 Signs and Symptoms

  • Sudden onset of high fever which may last 2 to 7 days.
  • Joint & muscle pain and pain behind the eyes.
  • Weakness
  • Skin rashes – maculopapular rash or red tiny spots on the skin called petechiae
  • Nosebleeding when fever starts to subside
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting of coffee-colored matter
  • Dark-colored stools

 Prevention and Control

  • Cover water drums and water pails at all times to prevent mosquitoes from breeding.
  • Replace water in flower vases once a week.
  • Clean all water containers once a week. Scrub the sides well to remove eggs of mosquitoes sticking to the sides.
  • Clean gutters of leaves and debris so that rain water will not collect as breeding places of mosquitoes.
  • Old tires used as roof support should be punctured or cut to avoid accumulation of water.
  • Collect and dispose all unusable tin cans, jars, bottles and other items that can collect and hold water.

Source: Department of Health


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Depressive Disorders

Depressive Disorder/Mental disorders characterized by either depressed mood or markedly diminished interest or pleasure in most activities of the day.


The causes vary:

  • The research data are most consistent with the hypothesis with disregulation
    of the biologic amines specifically norepinephrine and serotonin,
  • Family studies reported that first degree relatives of depressed disorders have 2-
    10 times more likely to have the disorder,
  • Twin studies show that the concordance rate for monozygotic twins is about 50%,
  • Stressful life events play the primary or principal role in depression, generally,
    it is the loss of significant person.


  • Significant weight loss or weight gain
  • Difficulty in sleeping or oversleeping
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Psychomotor agitation and slowness
  • Excessive guilt or feeling of worthlessness
  • Diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness
  • recurrent thoughts of deaths
  • recurrent suicidal ideations

 Prevention and Control

There are clear guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. This include both antidepressant medications and psychological interventions like cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy and family therapy.

Source: Department of Health

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Diphtheria is a bacterial (toxin-related) disease. It is an acute pharyngitis, acute naso pharyngitis or acute laryngitis with a pseudomembrane formation in the throat.

 Infectious Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheria

 Reservoir: Man

 Incubation Period: 2 to 5 days or may be longer

 Mode of Transmission:

  • By droplets spread through sneezing, coughing and close personal contact.

 Period of Communicability:

  • May last for 2 to 3 weeks
    • May be shortened in patients with antibiotic treatment
    • Diphtheria transmission is increased in schools, hospitals, households and in crowded areas.


  • Immunization of infants with 3 doses of DPT (at ages 6 weeks old, 10 weeks old and 14 weeks old).

Source: Department of Health

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Learn and Earn

SEA2Chuan and Jing joined a wholesale company together just after graduation. Both worked very hard.

After several years, the boss promoted Jing to sales executive but Chuan remained a sales rep. One day Chuan could not take it anymore, tender resignation to the boss and complained the boss did not value hard working staff, but only promoted those who flattered him.

The boss knew that Chuan worked very hard for the years, but in order to help Chuan realize the difference between him and Jing, the boss asked Chuan to do the following. Go and find out anyone selling water melon in the market? Chuan returned and said yes. The boss asked how much per kg? Chuan went back to the market to ask and returned to inform boss the $12 per kg.

Boss told Chuan, I will ask Jing the same question? Jing went, returned and said, boss, only one person selling water melon. $12 per kg, $100 for 10 kg, he has inventory of 340 melons. On the table 58 melons, every melon weighs about 15 kg, bought from the South two days ago, they are fresh and red, good quality.

Chuan was very impressed and realized the difference between himself and Jing. He decided not to resign but to learn from Jing.

My dear friends, a more successful person is more observant, think more and understand in depth. For the same matter, a more successful person sees several years ahead, while you see only tomorrow. The difference between a year and a day is 365 times, how could you win?

Think! how far have you seen ahead in your life? How thoughtful in depth are you?

Author Unknown

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